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[转载]非学校教育 Unschooling-公益翻译1

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[转载]非学校教育 Unschooling-公益翻译1

帖子 由 timmy 于 周一 八月 20, 2012 11:41 pm

[转载]非学校教育 Unschooling-公益翻译1

原文地址:非学校教育 Unschooling-公益翻译1
作者:开放教育_在家上
非学校教育
Unschooling 翻译者:杏仁 来自在家上学翻译组 http://www.bsxlm.com

版权声明:本文可以任意转载,转载时请务必保持作者、译者署名的完整性。



“非学校教育”有两个不同含义。一方面越来越多地用来描述与学校不同的教育方法,主要是指不过多依赖于教科书或是久坐于书桌前;另一方面,在创造这个术语的的人——教育家、作者和家庭教育介导者约翰•霍特(John Holt)——的设想中,“非学校教育”指的是特殊类型的教育,以兴趣为基础,父母并非高高在上指导孩子的教育,而是帮助孩子探索他(她)的兴趣。“非学校教育”不是指孩子没有受教育,而是指不在学校里受训(school也有训练和控制的含义),或者用严格的学校式方法进行教育。

The term "unschooling" has two distinct meanings. On one hand, it is increasingly used to describe methods of education that do not resemble schools, primarily indicating a lack of heavy reliance on textbooks or time spent at desks. In contrast, "unschooling" as envisioned by educator, author, and home education advocate John Holt, who coined the term, [1] refers to a specific type of interest based education in which the parents do not authoritatively direct the child's education, but instead aid the child in exploring his or her interests. "Unschooling" does not indicate that the child is not being educated, but that the child is not being "schooled", or educated in a rigid school-type manner.

霍特宣称,孩子通过生活的实践来学习,他还鼓励父母和孩子一起生活。非学校教育也称为兴趣导向或儿童导向的学习,尝试利用现实生活中出现的时机开展学习,不强迫孩子。非学校教育的孩子可以利用教科书和课堂授课,但不把它们当成教育的核心。霍特声称,没有(或是不必有)某种特定的知识体系是孩子必须要具备的。

Holt asserted that children learn through the experiences of life, and he encouraged parents to live their lives with their child. Also known as interest-led or child-led learning, unschooling attempts to follow opportunities as they arise in real life, through which a child will learn without coercion. An unschooled child may utilize texts or classroom instruction, but these are not considered central to education. Holt asserted that there is no specific body of knowledge that is, or should be, required of a child.

“非学校教育”不要与“非学校化”混为一谈,后者指一种反学校机构的哲学,或是针对曾被学校禁锢的儿童或父母消除毒化思想的阶段或形式。

"Unschooling" should not be confused with "deschooling," which may be used to indicate an anti-"institutional school" philosophy, or a period or form of deprogramming for children or parents who have previously been schooled.

内容
1 家庭教育
2 哲学
2.1 常规教育
2.2 知识的必备部分
2.3 父母的角色
3 社会化
4 批评
5 组织
6 其他形式的替代教育
7 突出的非学校教育主张
8 参见
9 参考资料
10 外部链接

Contents
• 1 Home education
• 2 Philosophy
o 2.1 Conventional education
o 2.2 Essential body of knowledge
o 2.3 The role of parents
• 3 Socialization
• 4 Criticisms
• 5 Organizations
• 6 Other forms of alternative education
• 7 Prominent unschooling advocates
• 8 See also
• 9 References
• 10 External links


家庭教育
Home education

非学校教育通常被认为是家庭教育的一种形式,后者只不过是让孩子在家接受教育,而不是在学校。家庭教育也通常被认为是家庭学校的同义词,但有人争论说,后者暗示是在家庭环境中重建学校,而他们认为这在哲学上和非学校教育是不一致的。

Unschooling is generally considered to be a form of home education, which is simply the education of children at home rather than in a school. Home education is often considered to be synonymous with homeschooling, but some have argued that the latter term implies the re-creation of school in the context of the home, which they believe is philosophically at odds with unschooling.

非学校教育和其他家庭教育形式的不同在于,学生的教育不是由老师或者课程来主导。虽然非学校教育的学生也可以选择利用老师或课程,他们从根本上是由自己在控制自己的教育。学生选择如何、何时、为什么探寻哪些。父母对孩子不加禁锢,扮演“服务商”,提供丰富的资源,帮助他们的孩子进入这个世界、在世界中生存、理解这个世界,帮助他们制定远期和近期的目标和计划并完成它们。非学校教育从孩子天生的好奇出发,拓展成他们的兴趣、交注、需要、目标和计划。

Unschooling contrasts with other forms of home education in that the student's education is not directed by a teacher and curriculum. Although unschooling students may choose to make use of teachers or curricula, they are ultimately in control of their own education.[2] Students choose how, when, why, and what they pursue. Parents who unschool their children act as "facilitators," providing a wide range of resources, helping their children access, navigate, and make sense of the world, and aiding them in *** and implementing goals and plans for both the distant and immediate future. Unschooling expands from children's natural curiosity as an extension of their interests, concerns, needs, goals, and plans.

哲学
Philosophy

常规教育
Conventional education

非学校教育者普遍相信好奇心与生俱来,孩子想学的东西,对于他们长大成人是必不可少的。有人争论让孩子在——用他们的话来说——“一刀切”或“工厂模型”的学校中进行制度化,是在低效利用他们的时间,因为这需要每个孩子在特定的时间通过特定的方式学习特定的科目,而不管个人现在或将来的需要、兴趣、目标或是他(她)在这方面已具备的知识。

Unschoolers commonly believe that curiosity is innate and that children want to learn that which is necessary for them to become competent adults. Some argue that institutionalizing children in what they term a "one size fits all" or "factory model" school is an inefficient use of their time because it requires every child to learn specific subject matter in a particular manner, at a particular pace, and at a particular time regardless of that individual's present or future needs, interests, goals, or any pre-existing knowledge he or she might have about the topic.

很多非学校教育者也相信,当教育的机会只能在学校建筑之内时,会大受限制,失去有价值的动手活动、社区活动、自发行为和真实社会的体验。

Many unschoolers also believe that opportunities for valuable hands-on, community based, spontaneous, and real-world experiences are missed when educational opportunities are largely limited to those which can occur physically inside of a school building.

此外,一些非学校教育者同意约翰•霍特的这一说法:“……焦虑的孩子感到一直被测试,他们对失败、惩罚和丢脸的恐惧,降低了他们认识知和记忆能力,促使他们逃离所学的材料,转而设法糊弄老师,不让老师发现他们并没有学会。”支持者声称个人化的、儿童导向的学习,更尊重孩子的时间,效率也更高,充分利用了他们的兴趣,比常规教育对科目的探索更加深入。

Additionally, some unschoolers agree with John Holt when he says that "...the anxiety children feel at constantly being tested, their fear of failure, punishment, and disgrace, severely reduces their ability both to perceive and to remember, and drives them away from the material being studied into strategies for fooling teachers into thinking they know what they really don't know." Proponents assert that individualized, child-led learning is more efficient and respectful of children's time, takes advantage of their interests, and allows deeper exploration of subjects than what is possible in conventional education.

知识的必备部分
Essential body of knowledge

非学校教育者时常争辩,学习任何特定的科目,都不如学习如何学习重要。他们称亚历克伯恩(Alec Bourne)说过,“脑子里可能储存了上百万件事实,但仍然一无所知”,用霍特的话来说:

Unschoolers often contest that learning any specific subject is less important than learning how to learn. They assert, in the words of Alec Bourne, "It is possible to store the mind with a million facts and still be entirely uneducated", and in the words of Holt:

既然我们不能知道以后最需要哪些知识,就没必要试着提前教它。反过来说,我们应该试着培养热爱学习、擅长学习、在需要时什么都能学会的人。

Since we can’t know what knowledge will be most needed in the future, it is senseless to try to teach it in advance. Instead, we should try to turn out people who love learning so much and learn so well that they will be able to learn whatever needs to be learned.

具备自学的能力之后,当这些孩子长大成人,他们能继续学习需要知识的东西,适应新出现的需要、兴趣和目标。他们能回过头重新学习他们认为学得不够扎实的任何科目,或者学习一门全新的科目。

This ability to learn on their own makes it more likely that later, when these children are adults, they can continue to learn what they need to know to meet newly emerging needs, interests, and goals. They can return to any subject that they feel was not sufficiently covered or learn a completely new subject.

许多非学校教育者不认为有某个特定的知识体系是每个人——不管他们所走的人生道路、各自的需求——都需要掌握的。他们认为,值得学习的科目难以计数,超出任何人一生所能学习。既然一个孩子不可能学会所有知识,那么就得有人决定学些什么。非学校教育者争论“儿童……当他们接触世界足够多时,能清楚地看到哪些对他们和别人是真正重要的,比起其他人,他们会为自己进入那个世界找出一条更好的途径。”

Many unschoolers disagree that there is a particular body of knowledge that every person, regardless of the life they lead, needs to possess. They suggest that there are countless subjects worth studying, more than anyone could learn within a single lifetime. Since it would be impossible for a child to learn everything, somebody must decide what subjects they are to explore. Unschoolers argue that "Children... if they are given access to enough of the world, they will see clearly enough what things are truly important to themselves and to others, and they will make for themselves a better path into that world than anyone else could make for them."

父母的角色
The role of parents

非学校教育虽然具有儿童导向的本质,但并不意味着父母不必向孩子提供指导和建议,或阻止父母向孩子分享他们认为引人入胜或深有启发的事物。这些父母通常认为,作为成人,他们对世界更有经验,体会也更深刻。他们相信应该利用这些帮助他们的孩子进入这个世界、在世界中生存、理解这个世界。常见的父母活动包括:和孩子分享有趣的书籍、文章和活动,帮助他们在某个感兴趣的领域找到专家(从物理学教授到机械师),帮助他们制定目标,弄清楚怎样才能达到目标。非学校教育虽然具有兴趣导向的本质,但并不意味着对教育“撒手不管”;父母倾向于投入相当程度,特别是对小一点的孩子(大孩子,除非是刚开始非学校教育,在寻找资源和制定并完成计划时,经常不那么需要帮助)。

The child-directed nature of unschooling does not mean that unschooling parents will not provide their children with guidance and advice, or that they will refrain from sharing things that they find fascinating or illuminating with them. These parents generally believe that as adults, they have more experience with the world and greater access to it. They believe in the importance of using this to aid their children in accessing, navigating, and *** sense of the world. Common parental activities include sharing interesting books, articles, and activities with their children, helping them find knowledgeable people to explore an interest with (anyone from physics professors to automotive mechanics), and helping them set goals and figure out what they need to do to meet their goals. Unschooling’s interest-based nature does not mean that it is a "hands off" approach to education; parents tend to be quite involved, especially with younger children (older children, unless they are new to unschooling, will often need much less help finding resources and *** and carrying out plans).

社会化
Socialization

在作出非学校教育的决定时,社会化经常是一个要考虑到的因素。许多非学校教育者相信常规教育的环境,如按年龄隔离、成人比例较低、和社区接触少、和教职员工以外的职业接触少,形成了不健康的社交环境。他们感到他们的孩子从接触不同年龄、不同背景的人群中获益。他们还感到他们的孩子从对他人施加影响以及打交道的环境中获益。非学校教育者引用研究报告,称家庭教育的学生倾向于比学校中的同龄人更成熟,有人相信这是因为他们有机会接触到更多各种各样的人。另一方面,非学校教育的批评者争论说,非学校教育把孩子从现成的、由不同个人构成的同龄人群体中带走,阻碍了社交发展。

Concerns about socialization are often a factor in the decision to unschool. Many unschoolers believe that the conditions common in conventional schools, like age segregation, a low ratio of adults to children, a lack of contact with the community, and a lack of people in professions other than teaching or school administration create an unhealthy social environment.[3] They feel that their children benefit from coming in contact with people of diverse ages and backgrounds in a variety of contexts. They also feel that their children benefit from having some ability to influence what people they encounter, and in what contexts they encounter them. Unschoolers cite studies which report that home educated students tend to be more mature than their schooled peers,[4][5][6] and some believe this is a result of the wide range of people with which they have the opportunity to communicate.[7] Critics of unschooling, on the other hand, argue that unschooling inhibits social development by removing children from a ready-made peer group of diverse individuals. [8][9]

批评
Criticisms

下面是反对非学校教育的常见论点和忧虑:
The following are common opinions and concerns of people who are critical of unschooling.

• 大多数孩子没有足够的远见来学习成年生活中需要的东西。
• 除非有教育专业人士来控制教材,否则孩子的教育中会有缺失。
• 因为学校提供了现成的同龄人资源,和学校里的同龄人相比,不上学的孩子很难交朋友、提高社交技能。
• 因为学校可以提供成年人和学生的不同群体,不上学的孩子很难接触到不同的文化、社会经济群体和全球化视角。
• 有些孩子缺乏学习动力,会把所有时间耗费在与教育无关的行为上,除非强迫他们做点别的。
• 不是所有的家长都有能力提供有诱发力的环境,或是有技巧和耐心来激发学生的好奇心。
• 因为没有受认可学校颁发的文凭,非学校教育的学生可以更难升入大学或找到工作。
• 自己主导教育的孩子可能缺少服从他人指令的能力。

• Most children lack the foresight to learn the things they will need to know in their adult lives.[10][9]
• There may be gaps in a child's education unless an educational professional controls what material is covered.[11]
• Because schools provide a ready-made source of peers, it may be more difficult for children who are not in school to make friends and develop social skills than it is for their schooled peers.[12][9]
• Because schools may provide a diverse group of both adults and students, it might be more difficult for children who are not in school to be directly exposed to different cultures, socio-economic groups and worldviews.[9]
• Some children are not motivated to learn anything, and will spend all of their time in un-educational endeavors if not coerced into doing otherwise.[13] (a stance that unschoolers directly oppose)
• Not all parents may be able to provide the stimulating environment or have the skills and patience required to encourage the student's curiosity.[10][11]
• Because they often lack a diploma from an accredited school, it may be more difficult for unschooled students to get into college or get a job.[11]
• Children who direct their own educations may not develop the ability to take direction from others.[14]


组织
Organizations

一个相对较新的现象是非学校教育、学校教育、自我主导学习中心。一些中心是为现有的家庭教育者或非学校教育者创办的,而且通常是由他们创办的;另一些,如 North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens(麻省 Hadley)通常会吸引那些还不是非学校教育者(他们可能从来没有听说过非学校教育),但有兴趣采用新的教育形式的人。
A relatively new phenomenon is the unschooling, homeschooling, or self-directed learning center.[15] Some centers are created for (and often by) existing homeschoolers or unschoolers, while others, such as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens[16] in Hadley, Massachusetts, often attract people who aren't currently unschoolers (and may never have heard of unschooling), but are interested in using a new form of education.
Not Back to School Camp is an annual gathering of over 100 unschoolers ages 13 to 18. The camp is directed by Grace Llewellyn, author of The Teenage Liberation Handbook: How To Quit School and Get a Real Life and Education.[17]

其他形式的替代教育
Other forms of alternative education

多种其他形式的替代教育同样很看重学生对学习的控制。包括自由学校,如Sudbury Valley School,和“开放学习”虚拟大学。非学校教育和这些方式的不同点在于:非学校教育者不认为机构对于辅助学习来于不是必需的。很多人相信“教育”机构实际上限制了学习,因为最有价值的学习发生在广阔的世界中,而它们把人从中隔离。

Many other forms of alternative education also place a great deal of importance on student control of learning. This includes free schools, like the Sudbury Valley School, and 'open learning' virtual universities. Unschooling differs from these approaches in that unschoolers do not believe that an institution is necessary to facilitate learning. Many believe that 'educational' institutions actually limit learning by removing people from the larger world, where they believe the most valuable learning occurs.

突出的非学校教育主张
Prominent unschooling advocates

• Catherine Baker
• Sandra Dodd
• Valerie Fitzenreiter
• John Taylor Gatto
• John Holt
• Jan Hunt
• Grace Llewellyn
• Wendy Priesnitz

参见
See also
• School-at-home
• Free school
• Summerhill School
• Taking Children Seriously
• Alternative school
• Gifted education
• Special education
• Sudbury Valley School

参考资料
References
1. ^ John Holt Biography, http://www.holtgws.com/johnholtpage.html
2. ^ The Teenage Liberation Handbook by Grace Llewellyn
3. ^ Socialization: A Great Reason Not to Go to School, http://learninfreedom.org/socialization.html
4. ^ Comparison of Social Adjustment Between Home and Traditionally Schooled Students, a thesis by Larry Edward Shyers
5. ^ Socialization: A Great Reason Not to Go to School, http://learninfreedom.org/socialization.html
6. ^ Home Schooling: Back to Basics
7. ^ Isn't it Natural for Children to be Divided by Age in School?, http://learninfreedom.org/age_grading_bad.html
8. ^ Readers share heated opinions on unschooling, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15148804/
9. ^ a b c d Common Objections to Homeschooling, by John Holt, originally published as Chapter 2 of Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Education. New York: Delacorte Press, 1981.
10. ^ a b Unspooling Unschooling, by Bonnie Erbe, in "To the Contrary" blog on US News and World Report website, November 27, 2006
11. ^ a b c A new chapter in education: unschooling, by Victoria Clayton MSNBC, Oct 6, 2006
12. ^ Readers share heated opinions on unschooling, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15148804/
13. ^ Unschooling Leads to Self-Motivated Learning, http://www.homeschoolnewslink.com/homeschool/columnists/mckee/vol7iss2_UnschoolingLeads.shtml
14. ^ Readers share heated opinions on unschooling, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15148804/
15. ^ Homeschool Resource Centers
16. ^ , North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens website
17. ^ http://www.nbtsc.org


外部链接
External links
• Unschooling at the Open Directory Project
• Unschooling Information
• The Unschooling Unmanual
• Cameron, Brent and Meyer, Barbara. SelfDesign: Nurturing Genius Through Natural Learning. ISBN 1-59181-044-2.
• Radical Unschooling


原英文地址:http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Unschooling

转自 http://www.bsxlm.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=469&extra=page=1
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