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[转载]Homeschooling 在家教育

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[转载]Homeschooling 在家教育

帖子 由 timmy 于 周一 八月 20, 2012 11:43 pm

Homeschooling 在家教育
翻译: 晴耕雨读


原文链接: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling


Homeschooling or homeschool (also called home education or home learning) is the education of children at home, typically by parents but sometimes by tutors, rather than in other formal settings of public or private school. Although prior to the introduction of compulsory school attendance laws, most childhood education occurred within the family or community,[1] homeschooling in the modern sense is an alternative in developed countries to private schools outside the home or educational institutions operated by civil governments.

在家教育,或称为在家上学,它指孩子在家里接受教育,通常由父母负责,有时有家庭老师;孩子不必加入其他公立或私立学校。在现在观念里,在家教育属于发达国家中对处于家和公立教育机构之外的私立学校的一个替代品,尽管在有义务教育法之前,大多数幼儿教育在家里或社区进行。



Homeschooling is a legal option for parents in some countries to provide their children with a learning environment as an alternative to public or private schools outside the home. Parents cite numerous reasons as motivations to homeschool, including better academic test results, poor public school environment, religious reasons, improved character/morality development, the expense of private education, and objections to what is taught locally in public school. It may be a factor in the choice of parenting style. Homeschooling is also an alternative for families living in isolated rural locations or living temporarily abroad.

在某些国家,在家教育对父母来说是一个合法的选择,以提供其孩子一个学习的环境,作为家庭之外的公立或私立学校的替代品。父母引述了大量原因解释在家上学的动机,包括更好的学业测验结果,不理想的公立学校环境,宗教原因,改良个性或品德发展,私立学校的高费用,以及反对本地公立学校教授的内容。这或许是一个教养方式的选择问题。在家教育对于居住于偏远的农村地区或暂居异国的家庭也是一个选择。



Homeschooling may also refer to instruction in the home under the supervision of correspondence schools or umbrella schools. In some places, an approved curriculum is legally required if children are to be home-schooled.[2] A curriculum-free philosophy of homeschooling may be called unschooling, a term coined in 1977 by American educator and author John Holt in his magazine Growing Without Schooling.

在家教育也可指在函授学校或庇护学校的管理之下在家里进行的教导。在某些地区,如果孩子要合法的在家上学,需要提供一份政府认可的课表。课程自由的在家上学观念会被称为‘非学校教育’-----一个始于1977年的称谓,出现于美国教育家、作家约翰·霍特的《无学校成长》杂志。


Contents目录

1 History 历史
2 Methodology 方法
2.1 Unit studies 单元学习
2.2 All-in-one curricula 一体式课程
2.3 Student-paced learning 按学生步调学习
2.4 Online education 在线教育
2.5 Community resources 社区资源
2.6 Unschooling and natural learning 非学校教育和自然学习

3 Homeschooling and college admissions 在家教育和高考录取
4 Motivations 动机
5 Controversies and criticism 争论和批评
5.1 Philosophical and political opposition 哲学和政治反对
5.2 Criticism of supportive achievement studies 对支持性成就的批评的研究
5.3 Potential for unmonitored child abuse 无监控儿童虐待的可能性

6 International status and statistics 国际状况与统计
6.1 Africa 非洲
6.1.1 Kenya 肯尼亚
6.1.2 South Africa 南非

6.2 Americas 美洲
6.2.1 Argentina 阿根廷
6.2.2 Brazil 巴西
6.2.3 Canada 加拿大
6.2.4 United States 美国

6.3 Asia 亚洲
6.3.1 People's Republic of China 中国
6.3.1.1 Hong Kong 香港
6.3.1.2 Taiwan 台湾
6.3.2 India 印度
6.3.3 Japan 日本
6.3.4 Indonesia 印度尼西亚

6.4 Europe 欧洲
6.4.1 Austria 奥地利
6.4.2 Belgium 比利时
6.4.3 Croatia 克罗地亚
6.4.4 Czech Republic 捷克
6.4.5 Denmark 丹麦
6.4.6 Finland 芬兰
6.4.7 France 法国
6.4.8 Germany 德国
6.4.9 Greece 希腊
6.4.10 Hungary 匈牙利
6.4.11 Republic of Ireland 爱尔兰
6.4.12 Italy 意大利
6.4.13 Netherlands 荷兰
6.4.14 Norway 挪威
6.4.15 Poland 波兰
6.4.16 Portugal 葡萄牙
6.4.17 Russia 俄罗斯
6.4.18 Slovenia 斯洛文尼亚
6.4.19 Slovak Republic 斯洛伐克
6.4.20 Spain 西班牙
6.4.21 Sweden 瑞典
6.4.22 Switzerland 瑞士
6.4.23 Turkey 土耳其
6.4.24 Ukraine 乌克兰
6.4.25 United Kingdom 英国

6.5 Oceania 大洋洲
6.5.1 Australia 澳大利亚
6.5.2 New Zealand 新西兰

7 Supportive research 支持性的调查
7.1 Test results 测验结果
7.2 Social research 社会调研
8 Other research 其他研究
9 See also 参阅
10 References 参考文献
11 External links 外部链接


本主题由 xincaotang 于 2011-12-8 16:02 加入精华
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回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-6-2 00:28
1. History 历史

本帖最后由 晴耕雨读 于 2011-6-20 23:32 编辑


For much of history and in many cultures, enlisting professional teachers (whether as tutors or in a formal academic setting) was an option available only to a small elite. Thus, until relatively recently, the vast majority of people were educated by parents (especially during early childhood) and in the fields or learning a trade.

史上多数时间,在许多文化中,只有少数精英能够负担专业的家庭教师或正式学校的老师,因此,直到近些年,广大民众普遍在田间地头接受父母的教育或学做生意,尤其在幼年时期。

The earliest compulsory education in the West began in the late 17th century and early 18th century in the German states of Gotha, Calemberg and, particularly, Prussia. However, even in the 18th century, the vast majority of people in Europe lacked formal schooling, which means they were homeschooled or received no education at all. The same was also true for colonial America and for the United States until the 1850s. Formal schooling in a classroom setting has been the most common means of schooling throughout the world, especially in developed countries, since the early and mid 19th century. Native Americans, who traditionally used homeschooling and apprenticeship, vigorously resisted compulsory education in the United States.

在17世纪晚期到18世纪早期,西方最早的义务教育发源于德国哥达县、Calemberg城、尤其是普鲁士。然而,即便在18世纪,欧洲民众仍缺乏正规学校,也就是说他们仍然在家上学或者根本没受教育。直到19世纪50年代,美国和美洲殖民地仍存在同样情形。到19世纪早中期,在教室里进行的正式教育成为全世界----尤其是发达国家----最常见的教育方式。习惯于传统的家庭教学和学徒方式的美洲印地安人在美国极力抵制义务教育。

In 1964, John Caldwell Holt published a book entitled How Children Fail which criticized traditional schools of the time. The book was based on a theory he had developed as a teacher – that the academic failure of schoolchildren was caused by pressure placed on children by adults. Holt began *** appearances on major TV talk shows and writing book reviews for Life magazine. In his follow-up work, How Children Learn, 1967, he tried to demonstrate the learning process of children and why he believed school short-circuits this process.

1964年,约翰•考德威尔•霍特出版《孩子如何失败》一书,批评当时的传统学校。该书基于他做老师发展出的理论,成人强加的压力导致学校的孩子们学业失败。霍特开始出现在主要的电视台谈话节目并为《生活》杂志写书评。在他的后续作品(1967年的《孩子如何学习》)中,他展示了孩子的学习过程以及他为何认为学校会使这个过程发展不良。

In these books Holt had not suggested any alternative to institutional schooling; he had hoped to initiate a profound rethinking of education to make schools friendlier toward children. As the years passed he became convinced that the way schools were was what society wanted, and that a serious re-examination was not going to happen in his lifetime.

在这些书中,霍特没有给体制内学校提出任何建议供选择,他希望发起一场对教育的深刻反思,以使学校对孩子来说更友好。随着时间的推移,他渐渐明白学校的方法是社会所需,在他有生之年都不会有针对学校的慎重研究了。

Working in a similar vein was Rousas John Rushdoony who focused on education in America and was an advocate of homeschooling, which he saw as a way to combat the intentionally secular nature of the U.S. public school system. He vigorously attacked progressive school reformers such as Horace Mann and John Dewey and argued for the dismantling of the state's influence in education in three works: Intellectual Schizophrenia (a general and concise study of education), The Messianic Character of American Education (a history and castigation of public education in the U.S.), and The Philosophy of the Christian Curriculum (a parent-oriented pedagogical statement). Rushdoony was frequently called as an expert witness by the HSLDA (Home School Legal Defense Association) in court cases.

在美国专注教育事业的Rousas John Rushdoony工作于类似的面纱下。他拥护在家教育,并视之为一个途径,以对抗美国公立学校体系有意的世俗本质。他尽力抨击教育改革者,如贺拉斯•曼和约翰•杜威。他在三本书中赞成取消国家在教育方面的影响:《知识分子的分裂》(常规而简明的教育研究),《美国教育的救世主特点》(美国公共教育的历史和对其的批评),以及《基督教课程观》(适合父母的教育法)。在法庭上,Rushdoony常被家庭教育法律辩护协会称为鉴定证人。

During this time, the American educational professionals Raymond and Dorothy Moore began to research the academic validity of the rapidly growing Early Childhood Education movement. This research included independent studies by other researchers and a review of over 8,000 studies bearing on Early Childhood Education and the physical and mental development of children.

这一时期,美国教育专家雷蒙德和多萝茜•摩尔着手调查迅速发展的幼儿早期教育的学业有效性。这项调研包括其他研究者的独立研究和对八千多份对于幼儿早期教育与孩子身体和精神发展的研究的回顾。

They asserted that formal schooling before ages 8–12 not only lacked the anticipated effectiveness, but was actually harmful to children. The Moores began to publish their view that formal schooling was damaging young children academically, socially, mentally, and even physiologically. They presented evidence that childhood problems such as juvenile delinquency, nearsightedness, increased enrollment of students in special education classes, and behavioral problems were the result of increasingly earlier enrollment of students. The Moores cited studies demonstrating that orphans who were given surrogate mothers were measurably more intelligent, with superior long term effects – even though the mothers were mentally retarded teenagers – and that illiterate tribal mothers in Africa produced children who were socially and emotionally more advanced than typical western children, by western standards of measurement.

他们声称始于8-12岁之前的正式学校教育不但无法达到预期效果,并且,事实上对孩子是有害的。摩尔团队开始发表他们的观点,正式学校教育对幼小的孩子会在以下方面造成伤害:学业、社交、心理甚至生理方面。他们展示证据证实了少年犯罪、近视、特殊教育班学生的增加、行为问题即是学生越来越早入学的后果。摩尔团队引用的研究结果显示,有养母——即使养母是智障青少年——的孤儿明显更聪明,且具有良好的长期效应;再有,非洲部落的文盲母亲抚养的孩子,按照西方量度标准,在社交和情感方面比典型的西方孩子发展得好得多。

Their primary assertion was that the bonds and emotional development made at home with parents during these years produced critical long term results that were cut short by enrollment in schools, and could neither be replaced nor afterward corrected in an institutional setting.

他们主要坚持认为:跟父母在家多年,得到了凝聚力和情感的发展,并产生了决定性的长期结果,而这将由于入学被中断;并且在一个体制环境中,既无法被取代也不能随后得到修正。

Recognizing a necessity for early out-of-home care for some children – particularly special needs and starkly impoverished children, and children from exceptionally inferior homes– they maintained that the vast majority of children are far better situated at home, even with mediocre parents, than with the most gifted and motivated teachers in a school setting (assuming that the child has a gifted and motivated teacher). They described the difference as follows: "This is like saying, if you can help a child by taking him off the cold street and housing him in a warm tent, then warm tents should be provided for all children – when obviously most children already have even more secure housing."

由于意识到对于某些孩子——尤其是有特殊需求和极端贫困的孩子以及来自地位相当低的家庭的孩子——早期非居家照护的必然性,他们主张绝大多数孩子最好呆在家里,即使父母是普通人,也好于学校里才华横溢的、积极的老师——假设孩子的老师是有才华、有***的。他们如此描述其中的差异:“就像有句话说的,若你能让一个孩子离开寒冷的大街,住进温暖的帐篷,那么所有孩子皆应拥有温暖帐篷。显然,绝大多数孩子已经有了安全得多的住所。”

Similar to Holt, the Moores embraced homeschooling after the publication of their first work, Better Late Than Early, 1975, and went on to become important homeschool advocates and consultants with the publication of books like Home Grown Kids, 1981, Homeschool Burnout, and others.

与霍特类似的是,摩尔团队在出版了他们的第一部作品(1975年的《迟比早好》)之后着手于在家教育,接着成为其重要的推广者和顾问,并著有《在家长大的孩子》(1981年)和《飞速发展的在家教育》等书。

At the time, other authors published books questioning the premises and efficacy of compulsory schooling, including Deschooling Society by Ivan Illich, 1970 and No More Public School by Harold Bennet, 1972.
In 1976, Holt published Instead of Education; Ways to Help People Do Things Better. In its conclusion, he called for a "Children's Underground Railroad" to help children escape compulsory schooling. In response, Holt was contacted by families from around the U.S. to tell him that they were educating their children at home. In 1977, after corresponding with a number of these families, Holt began producing Growing Without Schooling, a magazine dedicated to home education.

此时有其他作家出书质疑义务教育的前提和功效。包括1970年伊凡•伊利奇的《非学校化社会》,1972年哈罗德•贝内特的《公立学校不再有》。1976年,霍特出版了《替代教育:如何使人做得更好》。他在结语中呼吁给孩子们一个地下组织,帮助孩子们逃离义务教育。霍特得到了回应,美国各处均有家庭跟他联系,告知他自已在家教孩子。1977年,在与许多这样的家庭通过信之后,霍特开始筹办《无学校成长》这本致力于在家教育的杂志。

In 1980, Holt said, "I want to make it clear that I don't see homeschooling as some kind of answer to badness of schools. I think that the home is the proper base for the exploration of the world which we call learning or education. Home would be the best base no matter how good the schools were."

1980年,霍特说,“我想澄清一下,我未将在家教育视为某种对学校的恶劣状况的回应。我认为,对于向世界探索——我们称为学习或教育——家是一个适宜的起点。无论学校有多好,家是最佳出发地。

Holt later wrote a book about homeschooling, Teach Your Own, in 1981.One common theme in the homeschool philosophies of both Holt and the Moores is that home education should not be an attempt to bring the school construct into the home, or a view of education as an academic preliminary to life. They viewed it as a natural, experiential aspect of life that occurs as the members of the family are involved with one another in daily living.

随后,霍特于1981年写了一本关于在家教育的书,叫做《你自己来教》。对于在家教育,霍特和摩尔有一个共同的观点,即在家教育不应是想将学校搬回家,也不应视之为人生的学业准备。他们认为这是生活中自然的、来自经验的一方面,并以家庭成员在日常生活中相互关联的形式出现。


回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-6-10 23:04
2. Methodology 方法

本帖最后由 晴耕雨读 于 2011-7-4 15:34 编辑


Homeschools use a wide variety of methods and materials. There are different paradigms, or educational philosophies, that families adopt including unit studies, Classical education (including Trivium, Quadrivium), Charlotte Mason education, Montessori method, Theory of multiple intelligences, Unschooling, Radical Unschooling, Waldorf education, School-at-home, A Thomas Jefferson Education, and many others.

家庭教育使用丰富的方法和材料,有不同的范例或教育理念。各个家庭中采用的有单元学习、古典教育(包括三学科,四学科。译注:“三学科”(Trivium) 属初级,指文法、修辞和逻辑;“四学科” (Quadrivium)属高级,指算术、几何、天文和音乐。)、夏洛特•梅森教育法、蒙特梭利教学法、多元智能理论、自主学习、非学校教育、华德福教育、在家就学、托马斯•杰斐逊教育法、及其他等等。


Some of these approaches, particularly unit studies, Montessori, and Waldorf, are also available in private or public school settings.

其中一些方法,尤其是单元学习法、蒙特梭利和华德福,在公立或私立学校也有。


It is not uncommon for the student to experience more than one approach as the family discovers what works best for them. Many families do choose an eclectic (mixed) approach. For sources of curricula and books, "Homeschooling in the United States: 2003" found that 78 percent utilized "a public library"; 77 percent used "a homeschooling catalog, publisher, or individual specialist"; 68 percent used "retail bookstore or other store"; 60 percent used "an education publisher that was not affiliated with homeschooling." "Approximately half" used curriculum or books from "a homeschooling organization", 37 percent from a "church, synagogue or other religious institution" and 23 percent from "their local public school or district." 41 percent in 2003 utilized some sort of distance learning, approximately 20 percent by "television, video or radio"; 19 percent via "Internet, e-mail, or the World Wide Web"; and 15 percent taking a "correspondence course by mail designed specifically for homeschoolers."

为了在家找到最适宜的方法,学生常会多方尝试。许多家庭是折衷的、混用的。
在课程和书籍资源方面,“美国2003年在家教育”发现有78%的是利用公共图书馆;77%的借助在家教育书目、出版物和专业人士;68%使用零售书店或其他书店;60%的使用与在家教育无关的教育出版物;将近一半使用某个在家教育组织的课表或书籍;37%的来自教堂、犹太集会或其他宗教组织;23%来自当地公立学校或社区。2003年有41%的利用远程教育;大概20%通过电视、视频或广播;19%通过网络或电邮;还有15%使用专为在家上学者设计的函授课程。


Individual governmental units, e. g. states and local districts, vary in official curriculum and attendance requirements.

不同的政府单位,如州政府和地方政府,在课程和出勤的要求上亦有不同。



2.1 Unit studies 单元学习

The unit study approach incorporates several subjects, such as art, history, math, science, geography and other curriculum subjects, around the context of one topical theme, like water, animals, American slavery, or ancient Rome. For example, a unit study of Native Americans could combine age-appropriate lessons in: social studies, how different tribes lived prior to colonization vs. today; art, *** Native American clothing; history (of Native Americans in the U.S.); reading from a special reading list; and the science of plants used by Native Americans.

单元学习法是围绕一个主题,体现数门学科,如艺术、历史、数学、科学、地理等。主题可以是水、动物、美国奴隶制度、古罗马等等。以美洲印地安人的单元学习为例,可以根据年龄融合如下一些课程:社会学,殖民前与现在不同的部落如何生活;艺术,印地安人服装制作;历史,关于美国的印地安人;阅读,根据相应清单读书;科学,印地安人所种植物的相关知识。


Unit studies are particularly helpful for teaching multiple grade levels simultaneously, as the topic can easily be adjusted (i.e. from an 8th grader detailing and labeling a spider's anatomy to an elementary student drawing a picture of a spider on its web). As it is generally the case that in a given "homeschool" very few students are spread out among the grade levels, the unit study approach is an attractive option.Unit study advocates assert that children retain 45% more information following this approach.

由于主题很容易,单元学习法尤其有助于同时教授不同年级。比如,中学生可做蜘蛛的详细解剖并贴标签,而小学生可以画蜘蛛在网上的图。接受在家教育的学生通常不属于同一年级,因此单元学习法非常受欢迎。该法的支持者表示,孩子们通过这种方法可以吸收45%以上的信息。



2.2 All-in-one curricula 一体式课程

"All-in-one" curricula, sometimes called a "school in a box", are comprehensive packages covering many subjects; usually an entire year's worth. They contain all needed books and materials, including pencils and writing paper. Most such curricula were developed for isolated families who lack access to public schools, libraries and shops.

一体式课程有时也称“盒中学校”,它可将多门课程打包,常常占去整年的花费。他们含有所需的所有书本和材料,包括铅笔和书写纸。这种课程通常是为偏远地区的家庭准备的,他们不方面接触公立学校、图书馆和商店。


Typically, these materials recreate the school environment in the home and are based on the same subject-area expectations as publicly run schools, allowing an easy transition into school. They are among the more expensive options, but are easy to use and require minimal preparation. The guides are usually extensive, with step-by-step instructions. These programs may include standardized tests and remote examinations to yield an accredited school diploma.

这些材料通常能在家中再创学校环境,并且基于与公立学校相同的科目范围,要转入学校就会比较容易。这是一个较为昂贵的选择,但较易操作且所需的准备工作最少。指南通常具有逐步的、充分的说明。此方案可包括标准考试和远程测验以取得认证学校的毕业证。




2.3 Student-paced learning 按学生步调学习

Similar to All-in-one curricula are learner-paced curriculum packages. These workbooks allow the student to progress at their own speed.

与一体式课程类似,该法采用照顾学生进度的课程包形式。学生可以根据各自的学习速度使用练习薄。




2.4 Online education 在线教育

Online resources for homeschooling include courses of study, curricula, educational games, online tests, online tutoring, and occupational training. Online learning potentially allows students and families access to specialized teachers and materials and greater flexibility in scheduling. Parents can be with their children during an online tutoring session. Finally, online tutoring is useful for students who are disabled or otherwise limited in their ability to travel. Several well-known programs for gifted children, who need differentiation in their curricular choices, are available: the Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth http://cty.jhu.edu/about/index.html and Stanford University's Education Program for Gifted Youth http://epgy.stanford.edu/ both provide challenging materials to students, including both self-paced courses with tutor support and online classroom-based courses.

在家教育的网络资源包括学习课程、课表、教育性游戏、在线测试、在线辅导和职业训练。在线学习使学生和家庭有潜在机会接触各科目老师和相关资料;在时间安排上更灵活;父母可与孩子一起参加在线课程;最后,在线课程对因残障或其他原因不便出行的孩子很实用。对于在课程上与其他孩子的需要有所不同的超常儿童,有几种著名的方案可选:美国约翰霍普金斯大学中心为高能青年准备的http://cty.jhu.edu/about/index.html,以及斯坦福大学为才华横溢的年轻人准备的教育课程http://epgy.stanford.edu/。这两者都为学生提供颇具挑战性的资料,既有在导师支持下自定学习进度的课程,也有基于在线课堂的课程。


A commercial program of online study in all courses and at all grade levels is available from K12.com http://www.k12.com/. The K12 curriculum has been adopted by a number of public independent study charter schools throughout the country (see, for example, the California Virtual Academies at http://www.k12.com/cava/, where students use the K12 curriculum for credit under the supervision of a credentialed teacher).

http://www.k12.com/这个站点提供商业课程,包括所有年级所有科目的在线学习。K12课程已被国内一些公立的独立学习特许学校采用,例如加利福尼亚Virtual学院,参见http://www.k12.com/cava/。学生可在此网站使用K12课程,于持证老师监管之下获得学分


A number of other online high schools are also offering diplomas in many states, including some directed specifically at gifted students (see Stanford Online High School at http://epgy.stanford.edu/ohs/. Students can enroll in a full-time course load leading to a diploma or enroll in particular courses as part of their enrollment in another school or homeschool). Similarly, as more and more universities make content available online, homeschooled families are finding a wealth of materials available, primarily for use as self-study.

在许多州,很多在线高中也提供文凭,包括一些特别指向资优生的网站。例如斯坦福在线高中:http://epgy.stanford.edu/ohs/。学生可选择整学期全日制课程并获取文凭,也可选择某些课程以做为他们在其他学校或在家学习的补充。同样的,由于越来越多的大学把课程放在了网上,为在家教育的家庭提供了丰富的自学资料。


Although teacher support is not usually provided in open courseware programs, families teaching their own children may, if the study met their requirements, grant credit for the work through their homeschools. The University of California at Berkeley, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and many other renowned universities have contributed materials in this area. Some commercial organizations publish university-level lecture series on a broad range of subjects.

尽管开放课程常常没有老师方面的支持,但只要课程符合孩子的需要,家长在家教自己的孩子会很棒。加州大学伯克利分校、麻省理工学院和其他很多著名大学均有相关资料提供。一些商业机构出版了科目相当广泛的、大学水平的系列课件。


Although the companies typically offer no teacher support or credit, homeschool families can, depending on their legal method of homeschooling, grant credit for work that includes the use of these materials if mastery is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the parents or other persons with oversight responsibility. Noted musical educator S. M. Laddusaw has developed an adaptive musical curriculum (based on proprietary software) whereby students can learn piano and basic music theory at the student's own pace. The software recognizes patterns in the student's learning and adjusts the curriculum accordingly.

尽管公司通常不提供老师或学分,在家教育的家庭可以自己通过合法途径获得学分,包括使用上述材料;只要学生显示其掌握程度已让父母或其他监护人满意。著名音乐教师S.M.Laddusaw基于专用软件开发了一套音乐适配课程,学生可根据自己的进度用其学习钢琴和基础音乐理论。该软件可识别学生的学习模式并对课程作出相应调整。



2.5 Community resources 社区资源

Homeschoolers often take advantage of educational opportunities at museums, community centers, athletic clubs, after-school programs, churches, science preserves, parks, and other community resources. Secondary school level students may take classes at community colleges, which typically have open admission policies. In many communities, homeschooling parents and students participate in community theater, dance, band, symphony, and choral opportunities.

在家上学者一般有下列教育机会可供使用:博物馆、社区活动中心、运动俱乐部、课外计划、教堂、科学保护区、公园及其他社会资源。有中学水平的学生可在社区学院上课,其特色为具有开放的入学政策。在许多社区里,实行在家上学的父母和学生有机会参与到社区剧院、舞蹈队、乐队、交响乐团和合唱队。


Groups of homeschooling families often join together to create homeschool co-ops. These groups typically meet once a week and provide a classroom environment. These are family-centered support groups whose members seek to pool their talents and resources in a collective effort to broaden the scope of their children's education. They provide a classroom environment where students can do hands-on and group learning such as performing, science experiments, art projects, foreign language study, spelling bees, discussions, etc. Parents whose children take classes serve in volunteer roles to keep costs low and make the program a success.

多个在家上学的家庭小组常组成在家上学联盟。这些小组通常每周聚会一次并安排成教室环境。他们是以家庭为中心的支持小组,组员致力于把各自的想法和资源整合,共同努力拓宽他们孩子受教育的道路。他们提供教室环境,学生可以亲自实践,成组学习表演、科学实验、艺术项目、外语、拼写比赛、讨论等。班级学生的父母作为志愿者,以降低费用并促进计划成功实行。


Certain states, such as Maine, Florida and New Mexico, have laws that permit homeschooling families to take advantage of public school resources. In such cases, children can be members of sports teams, be members of the school band, can take art classes, and utilize services such as speech therapy while maintaining their homeschool lifestyle.

包括缅因州、佛罗里达州和新墨西哥州在内的某些州立法允许在家上学的家庭优先使用公共学校资源。如此,孩子在维持在家上学不变的同时,可参加学校的体育队、乐队、可上艺术课,获得语言障碍矫正等服务。


2.6 Unschooling and natural learning 非学校教育和自然学习

Some people use the terms "unschooling" or "radical unschooling" to describe all methods of education that are not based in a school.
"Natural learning" refers to a type of learning-on-demand where children pursue knowledge based on their interests and parents take an active part in facilitating activities and experiences conducive to learning but do not rely heavily on textbooks or spend much time "teaching", looking instead for "learning moments" throughout their daily activities. Parents see their role as that of affirming through positive feedback and modeling the necessary skills, and the child's role as being responsible for asking and learning.

有人用“激进的非学校教育”这样的字眼描述所有不在学校进行的教育。自然的学习指的是一种基于孩子们的需求的学习。孩子们根据自己的兴趣追求知识,家长们积极配合,促进各种有益于学习的活动和体验,而无需严重依赖课本或花许多时间去教,通过他们的日常活动,用“学习时刻”取代“看”。父母将自己的角色定义为通过积极的反馈和对必需技巧的示范来表示肯定;孩子则负责问和学。


The term "unschooling" as coined by John Holt describes an approach in which parents do not authoritatively direct the child's education, but interact with the child following the child's own interests, leaving them free to explore and learn as their interests lead. "Unschooling" does not indicate that the child is not being educated, but that the child is not being "schooled", or educated in a rigid school-type manner. Holt asserted that children learn through the experiences of life, and he encouraged parents to live their lives with their child. Also known as interest-led or child-led learning, unschooling attempts to follow opportunities as they arise in real life, through which a child will learn without coercion.

约翰•霍特创造 “unschooling”(非学校教育)这一术语描述一种方法,父母不是命令式的指导孩子的教育,而是根据孩子的兴趣与他合作,让他们在自己的兴趣引导下探索、学习。非学校教育不是指孩子不受教育,而是不受学校训练、不接受刻板的学校教育方式。霍特主张孩子从生活经验中学习,他鼓励父母与孩子共享生活,也称为兴趣引领或孩子引领学习。非学校教育尝试抓住出现在真实生活中的机会,孩子可以毫无压力的从中学习。


An unschooled child may utilize texts or classroom instruction, but these are not considered central to education. Holt asserted that there is no specific body of knowledge that is, or should be, required of a child.
"Unschooling" should not be confused with "deschooling," which may be used to indicate an anti-"institutional school" philosophy, or a period or form of deprogramming for children or parents who have previously been schooled.

一个不去学校的孩子也可能使用课本或教室,但这些并不是教育的核心。霍特的主张为,不应有任何一个特定的知识主体对孩子来说是必需的。非学校教育不应与反学校教育混淆,后者可能用于反对学校这一体制,或让曾上学的孩子或父母有反对学校操纵的一段时期或一些做法。


Both unschooling and natural learning advocates believe that children learn best by doing; a child may learn reading to further an interest about history or other cultures, or math skills by operating a small business or sharing in family finances. They may learn animal husbandry keeping dairy goats or meat rabbits, botany tending a kitchen garden, chemistry to understand the operation of firearms or the internal combustion engine, or politics and local history by following a zoning or historical-status dispute. While any type of homeschoolers may also use these methods, the unschooled child initiates these learning activities. The natural learner participates with parents and others in learning together.

非学校教育和自然学习法都主张实践是孩子最好的学习方式。孩子可能学习阅读以延伸对历史或其他文化的兴趣;或者通过小生意或共担家庭财产规划学到数学技巧;他们通过养奶羊或肉兔能学到畜牧学;通过管理家庭菜园学到植物学;通过了解点火器或内燃机的工作学到化学;通过跟随分区或历史地位之争学到政治和地方史。任一种在家学习者都可以使用这些方法,在家上学的孩子就以此为学习活动的开端。自然学习者有父母和其他人共同参与学习。


Homeschooling families usually have to absorb the total costs of their child's education.

在家上学的家庭通常需要承担他们孩子所有的教育费用。


回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-6-28 13:22
非常感谢!

回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-7-4 15:36
不客气:)

回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-7-4 15:36
3 Homeschooling and college admissions 在家教育和高考录取
Parents choose to use standardized test scores to aid colleges in evaluating students. The College Board suggests that homeschooled students keep detailed records and portfolios.

父母与大学一道使用标准考试分数衡量学生。大学理事会建议在家上学的学生保留详细的记录文件。

In the last several decades, US colleges and universities have become increasingly open to accepting students from diverse backgrounds, including home-schooled students. According to one source, homeschoolers have now matriculated at over 900 different colleges and universities, including institutions with highly selective standards of admission such as the US military academies, Rice University, Harvard University, Stanford University, Cornell University, Brown University, Dartmouth College, and Princeton University.

过去几十年里,美国大学以愈加开放的态度接受不同背景的学生,包括在家上学的。据称目前已有900多所不同的大学接受了在家上学的学生,包括招生标准很高的学校,比如美国陆军军官学校、莱斯大学、哈佛大学、斯坦福大学、康奈尔大学、布朗大学、达特茅斯学院和普林斯顿大学。


A growing number of homeschooled students are choosing dual enrollment, earning college credit by taking community college classes while in high school. Others choose to earn college credits through standardized tests such as the College Level Examination Program (CLEP).

越来越多在家上学的学生选择双重入学,在高中时参加社区大学课程以获得大学学分。也有学生通过标准考试获得大学学分,如大学考试方案。

4 Motivations 动机
Number and percentage of homeschooled students in the United States, by reason for homeschooling: 1999, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)美国1999年由于各种原因在家上学的学生人数和百分比。(美国国家教育统计中心)
Reason for homeschooling
在家上学的原因 Number of
homeschooled students人数 Percent
百分比 s.e.
标准误差
Can give child better education at home 在家可给孩子更好的教育 415,000 48.9 3.79
Religious reason 宗教原因 327,000 38.4 4.44
Poor learning environment at school
学校教学环境差 218,000 25.6 3.44
Family reasons 家庭原因 143,000 16.8 2.79
To develop character/morality
为了发展个性或美德 128,000 15.1 3.39
Object to what school teaches
不认同学校所教内容 103,000 12.1 2.11
School does not challenge child
学校对孩子来说没挑战性 98,000 11.6 2.39
Other problems with available schools
可选学校的其他问题 76,000 9.0 2.40
Child has special needs/disability
孩子有特殊需求或残疾 69,000 8.2 1.89
Transportation/convenience 交通不方便 23,000 2.7 1.48
Child not old enough to enter school
孩子不到入学年龄 15,000 1.8 1.13
Parent's career 父母工作原因 12,000 1.5 0.80
Could not get into desired school
无法进入期望的学校 12,000 1.5 0.99
Other reasons* 其他原因 189,000 22.2 2.90

According to a 2001 U.S. Census survey, 33% of homeschooling households cited religion as a factor in their choice. The same study found that 30% felt school had a poor learning environment, 14% objected to what the school teaches, 11% felt their children were not being challenged at school, and 9% cited morality.

根据美国2001年的普查数据,33%的家庭在家上学的原因之一是由于宗教因素;30%由于学校环境差;14%反对学校的教学;11%的觉得他们的孩子在学校无法得到挑战;9%选了道德原因。


According to the U.S. DOE's "Homeschooling in the United States: 2003", 85 percent of homeschooling parents cited "the social environments of other forms of schooling" (including safety, drugs, ***ual harassment, bullying and negative peer-pressure) as an important reason why they homeschool. 72 percent cited "to provide religious or moral instruction" as an important reason, and 68 percent cited "dissatisfaction with academic instruction at other schools." 7 percent cited "Child has physical or mental health problem", 7 percent cited "Child has other special needs", 9 percent cited "Other reasons" (including "child's choice," "allows parents more control of learning" and "flexibility").
Other reasons include more flexibility in educational practices for children with learning disabilities or illnesses, or for children of missionaries, military families, or otherwise traveling parents.

根据美国能源部的“美国2003年在家教育情况”,父母在家教育的重要原因,85%选择“学校教育中其他形式的社会环境(包括安全、毒品、性骚扰、欺负弱小和不当的同龄人压力)”;72%选择“为了宗教或道德教学”;68% 选择“对其他学校的教学不满意”;7%选择“孩子有心理或精神健康问题”;7%选择“孩子有其他特殊需求”;9%选择“其他原因”(包括孩子的选择,允许父母对学习有更多把握,更灵活)。其他原因包括对孩子的教育方法更灵活,如有学习障碍的、生病的、传教士的孩子、从军的家庭或四处旅行的父母。



5 Controversies and criticism 争议和批评
5.1 Philosophical and political opposition 哲学和政治上的反对
Opposition to homeschooling comes from many sources, including some organizations of teachers and school districts. The National Education Association, a United States teachers' union and professional association, opposes homeschooling.

对在家上学的反对来自多方面,包括一些教师组织和教育局。全国教育协会(一个美国教师联盟、职业协会)反对在家教育。


Opponents of homeschooling state several categories of concerns relating to homeschooling or its potential effects on society:
• Inadequate standards of academic quality and comprehensiveness;
• Lack of socialization with peers of different ethnic and religious backgrounds;
• The potential for development of religious or social extremism;
• Children sheltered from mainstream society, or denied opportunities that are their right, such as social development;
• Potential for development of parallel societies that do not fit into standards of citizenship and the community.

反对在家教育的提出了几点问题,关于在家教育及其潜在社会影响:
• 学习质量和理解程度的标准不恰当;
• 缺乏可供适应的不同种族和宗教背景的同龄人社会环境;
• 宗教或社会方面发展过于极端的可能性;
• 孩子需要主流社会庇护,或者拒绝本属于他们的机会,例如社会发展;
• 发展出不适合公民和社区标准的社会的可能性。


Stanford University political scientist professor Rob Reich (not to be confused with former U.S. Secretary of Labor, Robert Reich) wrote in The Civic Perils of Homeschooling (2002) that homeschooling can potentially give students a one-sided point of view, as their parents may, even unwittingly, block or diminish all points of view but their own in teaching.

斯坦佛大学政治学教授罗伯•赖希(勿与美国前劳动部长罗伯特•赖希混淆)在2002年的《在家教育的公民险境》中写道,在家教育有可能提供学生片面的观点,由于他们的父母可能在教学中出于无意的仅保留了他们自己的角度,而阻断或弱化了其他角度。


He also argues that homeschooling, by reducing students' contact with peers, reduces their sense of civic engagement with their community.
Gallup polls of American voters have shown a significant change in attitude in the last twenty years, from 73% opposed to home education in 1985 to 54% opposed in 2001.

同时他认为,由于学生跟同龄人接触少,在家教育会减弱他们对社会的公民责任感。美国盖洛普民意调查显示了人们对在家上学的态度有很大改变——1985年73%的人反对,2001年则为54%。

回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-12-9 01:01
5.2 Criticism of supportive achievement studies 对支持性成就研究的批评
Although there are some studies that show that homeschooled students can do well on standardized tests, some of these studies compare voluntary homeschool testing with mandatory public-school testing. Homeschooled students in the United States are not subject to the testing requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. Some U.S. states require mandatory testing for homeschooled students, but others do not. Some states that require testing allow homeschooling parents to choose which test to use.

尽管有一些研究显示,在家上学的学生能在标准考试中表现良好,某些研究还将自愿受测学生的成绩与公立学校做了比较,然而美国在家上学的学生并不符合《有教无类法案》的测试要求。某些州要求在家上学的学生必须接受测试,有些则不强行要求。在某些要求学生接受测验的州,父母可自选试题。


An exception are the SAT and ACT tests, where homeschooled and formally schooled students alike are self-selecting; homeschoolers averaged higher scores on college entrance tests in South Carolina. When testing is not required, students taking the tests are self-selected, which biases any statistical results. Other test scores (numbers from 1999 data in a year 2000 article) showed mixed results, for example showing higher levels for homeschoolers in English (homeschooled 23.4 vs national average 20.5) and reading (homeschooled 24.4 vs national average 21.4) on the ACT, but mixed scores in math (homeschooled 20.4 vs national average 20.7 on the ACT as opposed homeschooled 535 vs national average 511 on the 1999 SAT math).

SAT和ACT考试(译注:美国高考)是例外,无论在家上学还是一般学校的学生都可以自选。南卡罗莱纳在家上学者大学入学考试的平均成绩高于一般学校学生。若未要求测验,学生自选测试题,那么任何统计结果都有偏差。一篇2000年的文章(引用1999年测验分数的数据)显示了多样的结果。例如ACT的英文,在家上学的23.4,而全国平均20.5;阅读,在家上学的24.4,而全国平均21.4;数学复杂一点,ACT中在家上学的20.4,全国平均20.7,而SAT相反,在家上学的535,全国平均511.

However, advocates of home education and educational choice counter with an input-output theory, pointing out that home educators expend only an average of $500–$600 a year on each student, in comparison to $9,000-$10,000 for each public school student in the United States, which raises a question about whether home-educated students would be especially dominant on tests if afforded access to an equal commitment of tax-funded educational resources.

然而,在家教育的支持者和持投入产出理论的教育精确化支持者指出,在家教育每年每生平均只需500到600美元,与美国公立学校学生每人9000到10000美元的费用形成鲜明对比。由此产生一个问题:若能获得同等税务支持的教学资源,在家上学的学生测验表现会否格外卓越?

5.3 Potential for unmonitored child abuse无监控儿童虐待的可能
There is no evidence to suggest that abuse among homeschoolers is more pervasive or severe than in government institutions. Nevertheless, in Washington, D.C. increased regulation of homeschooling was enacted in response to a mother who had withdrawn her four children from public school and was subsequently charged with their murder. It was claimed that the homeschooling exemption in the District of Columbia allowed the abuse of the children to occur undetected.

并无证据显示在家上学人群中的虐待比在公立机构更普遍或更严重。不过,华盛顿在家教育法规增强版的颁布是基于此事:一位母亲将她的四个孩子从公立学校退学,随后由于他们的被谋杀而受到控告(译注:搜“华盛顿四命案”可查看相关新闻)。这说明,哥伦比亚特区(译注:华盛顿全称华盛顿哥伦比亚特区)对在家上学的豁免是在允许无监测儿童虐待发生。

回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-12-9 01:05
6 International status and statistics国际状况与统计
Homeschooling is legal in many countries. Countries with the most prevalent home education movements include Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Some countries have highly regulated home education programs as an extension of the compulsory school system; others, such as Germany, have outlawed it entirely. Brazil has a law project in process. In other countries, while not restricted by law, homeschooling is not socially acceptable or considered undesirable and is virtually non-existent.

在家教育在许多国家是合法的。在家教育非常普遍的国家包括澳大利亚、加拿大、新西兰、英国和美国。某些国家具有高度系统化的在家教育体系,以作为义务教育系统的补充。其他的,如在德国则完全非法;巴西正在制定相关法律。在其他国家,虽未受法律限制,但并不为社会认可或欢迎,或者根本不存在。

Africa 非洲
Kenya 肯尼亚
Status: Legal 状况:合法
Homeschooling is currently permitted in Kenya.
肯尼亚目前允许在家上学。

South Africa 南非
Status: Multiple 状况:复杂
Homeschooling is legal according to South African national law, but individual provinces have the authority to set their own restrictions. 南非国内法律允许在家上学,但各省有权设限。

Americas 美洲
Argentina 阿根廷
Status: Legal 状况:合法
There is no law addressing homeschooling in Argentina. It is the parents' responsibility to make sure their child(ren) get an adequate education.
阿根廷没有关于在家上学的法律描述。让孩子得到相应的教育是父母的责任。

Brazil 巴西
Status: Illegal 状况:非法
A couple, a Brazilian mother and an American father, was investigated in 2010 by the municipal government of Serra Negra, São Paulo, for homeschooling their children. The local authorities were tipped off by an anonymous source because the couples's two daughters did not attend school. The Public Ministry expected to reach an agreement with the family to enlist the infants in formal schools. Enrollment in schools in Brazil is mandatory for people aged 4–17.
2010年,一对巴西母亲和美国父亲的夫妻受到圣保罗的塞拉•内洛拉市政府调查,因为他们的孩子接受在家教育。地方政府收到匿名举报,这对夫妇的两个女儿不去学校上学。政府部门希望家长送未成年孩子去正规学校。在巴西,4-17岁需接受义务教育。

Canada 加拿大
Status: Legal 状况:合法
Meighan estimated the total number of homeschoolers in Canada, in 1995, to be 10,000 official and 20,000 unofficial. Karl M. Bunday estimated, in 1995, based on journalistic reports, that about 1 percent of school-age children were homeschooled. In April 2005, the total number of registered homeschool students in British Columbia was 3,068. In Manitoba, homeschoolers are required to register with Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth. The number of homeschoolers is noted at over 1,500 in 2006; 0.5% of students enrolled in the public system.

1995年,梅甘估计加拿大在家上学的总人数在一万(官方的)至二万(非官方的)。卡尔•M•Bunday1995年根据媒体报道估计,大概1%的学龄儿童在家上学。
2005年4月,不列颠哥伦比亚省登记的在家上学学生总数是3068人。曼尼托巴省要求在家上学者进行地方教育登记、本地公民身份登记和青年登记;2006年记下的在家上学人数超过1500;0.5%的学生在公共系统中进行了登记。


United States 美国
Further information: Homeschooling in the United States 更多信息请见:美国在家教育http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling_in_the_United_States

Status: Legal 状况:合法
In "The Condition of Education 2000-2009," The National Center for Education Statistics of the United States Department of Education reports that In 2007, the number of homeschooled students was about 1.5 million, an increase from 850,000 in 1999 and 1.1 million in 2003. The percentage of the school-age population that was homeschooled increased from 1.7 percent in 1999 to 2.9 percent in 2007. The increase in the percentage of homeschooled students from 1999 to 2007 represents a 74 percent relative increase over the 8-year period and a 36 percent relative increase since 2003. In 2007, the majority of homeschooled students received all of their education at home (84 percent), but some attended school up to 25 hours per week.

美国教育部国家教育统计中心在《2000-2009年教育状况》中报告,2007年在家上学的学生人数大概是150万,比起1999年的85万和2003年110万有所增长。学龄人口在家上学的比例从1999年的1.7%增长到2007年的2.9%。从1999年到2007年的8年间,在家上学的学生比例增加了74%;自2003年以来则增加了36%。2007年,大多数在家上学的学生(84%)完全在家接受教育,也有一些每星期上学25个小时。


回复 引用 发表于 |只看该作者 2011-12-9 01:06
Asia 亚洲
People's Republic of China 中国
Status: Deemed illegal for citizens, but no restrictions for foreign students.
状况:对国民来说是非法的,但对外国学生无限制。

There are no accurate statistics on homeschooling in the People's Republic of China.
中国没有准确的在家上学统计数据。

The Compulsory Education Law states that the community, schools and families shall safeguard the right to compulsory education of school-age children and adolescents, and, compulsory education is defined as attending a school, which is holding a schooling licence granted by the government. Therefore, homeschooling is deemed to be illegal. The law does not apply to non-citizen children (those with foreign passports).

《义务教育法》规定,社区、学校、家庭应保护学龄儿童和青少年接受义务教育的权利,义务教育指的是上一所持有政府颁发的办学许可的学校。因此,在家上学被视为非法。该法不适用于非本国公民的儿童(即持外国护照者)。



However, due to the large population of hundreds of millions of migration workers, alongside with their children, it rarely happens that the government inspects if a child is attending a licensed school or not. Thus there usually is no punishment to parents who homeschool their children.

然而,由于有数以亿计的庞大流动人口(与孩子一起),政府鲜有检查一名孩子是否上了一所已获批准的学校。因此,对于让孩子接受在家教育的父母,通常也没有惩罚措施。



It should be noted that in many cases children are unable to attend school due to economic difficulties, as compulsory education offered by local governments is not always free.

值得注意的是,很多时候孩子们不能上学是出于经济困难,因为地方政府提供的义务教育也不全都是免费的。


An organization called Shanghai Home-School Association was launched in September 2003.

2003年9月启动了一个名叫“上海在家上学联盟”的组织。



Hong Kong 香港
Status: Illegal 状况:非法
Attendance at school is compulsory and free for students aged six to fifteen in Hong Kong. Parents who fail to send their children to school can be jailed for 3 months and fined HK$10000. In 2000, a man named Leung Jigwong (梁志光) disagreed with Hong Kong's education policy and refused to send his 9-year-old daughter to school. Instead, he taught her Chinese, English, French, Mathematics and The Art of War at home. After 2.5 years of discussion, the Education Department finally served an "attendance order" on him and his child was required to attend a normal school.

香港6到15岁的学生需在学校接受免费义务教育。父母若不送孩子去学校可处以3个月监禁和一万港币的罚金。2000年,一位叫梁志光的先生不赞成香港的教育政策,并拒绝送他九岁的女儿去学校。同时,他在家教她中文、英文、法语、数学和《孙子兵法》。经过两年半的讨论之后,教育司最终发了一封“入学命令”给他,并要求他的孩子进入普通学校。



India 印度
Further information: Homeschooling and Alternative Education in India
更多信息请见:印度在家上学和其他教育方式:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hom ... _Education_in_India


Japan 日本
The legal position is complex; as homeschooling is uncommon, local officials may claim it is illegal but this is not actually the case. Over 100,000 children refuse school, but the number of homeschoolers is much smaller, though it is increasing.

法律地位复杂,由于在家上学不常见,地方政府认为是非法的,但并非如此。超过十万学生不愿上学,但在家上学的数量尽管在增长,却仍是非常少的。


Indonesia 印度尼西亚
Status: Legal 状况:合法
Homeschooling in Indonesia (Indonesian: Pendidikan Rumah) is regulated under National Education System 2003 under division of informal education. This enables the children of Homeschooling to attend an equal National Tests to obtain an "Equivalent Certificate". The homeschooling is recently becoming a trend in upper-middle to upper class families with highly educated parents with capability to provide better tutoring or expatriate families living far away from International School. Since 2007 the Indonesia's National Education Department took efforts in providing Training for Homeschooling Tutors and Learning Media even though the existence of this community is still disputed by other Non Formal education operators school.

印尼《2003年国家教育体制》非制式教育部分有对在家上学的规定。其允许在家上学的孩子同样的参加国家考试以获取相应文凭。在家上学近来在受过高层次教育的上等和中上等阶层父母中成为一个趋势,他们有能力负担更优秀的家教或者成为住地较远的国际学校外籍家庭。印尼国家教育部自2007年始致力于为在家教育提供教师培训和媒体学习,尽管其他非正式学校尚对此团体存在争议。




Taiwan 台湾
Status: Legal 状况:合法
Homeschooling in Taiwan, Taiwan is legally recognized since 1982[57] and regulated as a possible form of special education since 1997.[58]

在家上学在台湾获得法律认可始于1982年,并于1997年被规定为一种特殊教育形式。
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